Cambridge phd thesis

Licentiate degrees vary widely in their meaning, and in a few countries are doctoral level qualifications. Sweden awards the licentiate degree as a two-year qualification at doctoral level and the doctoral degree (PhD) as a four-year qualification. [33] Sweden originally abolished the Licentiate in 1969 but reintroduced it in response to demands from business. [34] Finland also has a two-year doctoral level licentiate degree, similar to Sweden's. [35] Outside of Scandinavia, the licentiate is normally a lower level qualification. In Belgium, the licentiate was the basic university degree prior to the Bologna Process and was approximately equivalent to a bachelor's degree, [36] [37] while in France and other countries it is the bachelor's-level qualification in the Bologna process. [38] In the Pontifical system, the Licentiate in Sacred Theology (STL) is equivalent to an advanced master's degree, or the post-master's coursework required in preparation for a doctorate (. similar in level to the Swedish/Finnish licentiate degree), while other licences (such as the Licence in Canon Law) are at the level of master's degrees. [39]

Cambridge phd thesis

cambridge phd thesis

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