A marriage can also be dissolved by means of judicial divorce.  Either spouse can petition a qadi court to obtain judicial divorce, but they must have compelling grounds for dissolving the marriage.  The court starts the process by appointing an arbitrator from each of their families in order to seek a mediated reconciliation.  If this effort fails, the court adjudicates the dispute by apportioning fault for the breakdown of the marriage with the associated financial consequences.  Examples of fault are cruelty; husband's failure to provide maintenance or pay the immediate installment of mahr ; infidelity; desertion; moral or social incompatibility; certain ailments; and imprisonment harmful to the marriage.   Judicial divorce can also be sought over violations of terms stipulated in the marriage contract.  Different legal schools recognized different subsets of these grounds for divorce.  The Maliki school, which recognized the widest range of grounds for divorce, also stipulates a category of "harm" (ḍarar), which gave the judge significant discretion of interpretation. 
The divorce revolution's collective consequences for children are striking. Taking into account both divorce and non-marital childbearing, sociologist Paul Amato estimates that if the United States enjoyed the same level of family stability today as it did in 1960, the nation would have 750,000 fewer children repeating grades, million fewer school suspensions, approximately 500,000 fewer acts of teenage delinquency, about 600,000 fewer kids receiving therapy, and approximately 70,000 fewer suicide attempts every year ( correction appended ) . As Amato concludes, turning back the family-stability clock just a few decades could significantly improve the lives of many children.