IN 1986, UCOPE set the general standard for passing by approving the AWPE Scoring Guide. There also is a regular annual procedure for applying these general standards to each new examination. From the pretest essays, the Universitywide Analytical Writing Placement Examination Committee assembles a set of papers representing the weakest to the strongest performance. Members reach their own consensus about the scores these papers should receive. They then provide this set of papers to UCOPE. At its March meeting UCOPE reviews these essays and decides independently on the scores. (In almost all cases both committees assign the same scores to the papers.) These essays and their UCOPE scores set the standard by which the chief reader and the room leaders choose essays from the May administration to exemplify the standards for all the readers who score papers in June.
The recent decades have witnessed concerns about the ethical issues of animal testing in numerous products' manufacturing. There are those who contend that animal experimentation is of utmost importance in the development of medicines. Nonetheless, a staggering number of individuals claim that human have no moral right to do experiments on animals.
From one stance, it is widely acknowledged that the lives of all creatures should be respected. With the advance of technology, it is possible for researchers to obtain reliable experimental results from alternative methods. In truth, plant testing is a case in point, where one of the remarkable observations coming from research findings is that the use of plant experimentation in the development of cosmetic products generates same experimental data in comparison with the data generated by animal testing. In addition, there are some countries banned the use of animal testing for non-medical products.
From another stance, animal experimentation is a vital part in the development of medicines. Having tested by animals, medicines were cleared for human use. Furthermore, it does justify the suffering caused to animals if the drugs, which had been developed through the use of animal experimentation, save patients' lives. Interestingly enough, animal experimentation advanced medical and scientific knowledge. To illustrate, sending monkeys and non-human apes to space in order to collect information before human trial ensured the safety of astronauts. Needless to say, use of pigs in robotic surgery training to modify surgical technique is also a case in point.
Viewed as a whole, it is no doubt that animal experimentation is morally wrong. Nonetheless, it is said to be necessary evil where new drugs and medical procedures are concerned. To my way of thinking, it is pivotal for governments to ban animal testing in non-medical products and regulate the use of animal in medical products' development.