Shaikh Walli-Ullah was a scholar of great repute and produced a number of books on mysticism. He justified this reconciliation of the two doctrines in his Madina letter and said, “Wahdatu’l Wujud” and “Wahdatush Shuhud” are relative terms used on two different occasions as agreements about the existence of the Divine Being and his relation with man and the world. It is only a difference of approach to the same reality. Both are based on direct mystic experience and they do not contradict each other. The difference of interpretation is due to the metaphorical language which has been employed by the two parties. And yet on another occasion he has observed that in the mystic path the stage of “Apparentism” is higher than that of the “Unity of Being” (Tafhimate Ilahia).
In this history of fishing — not as sport but as sustenance — archaeologist and best-selling author Brian Fagan argues that fishing was an indispensable and often overlooked element in the growth of civilization. It sustainably provided enough food to allow cities, nations, and empires to grow, but it did so with a different emphasis. Where agriculture encouraged stability, fishing demanded movement. It frequently required a search for new and better fishing grounds; its technologies, centered on boats, facilitated movement and discovery; and fish themselves, when dried and salted, were the ideal food—lightweight, nutritious, and long-lasting—for traders, travelers, and conquering armies. This history of the long interaction of humans and seafood tours archaeological sites worldwide to show readers how fishing fed human settlement, rising social complexity, the development of cities, and ultimately the modern world.
Brian Fagan, emeritus professor at the University of California, Santa Barbara, is one of the world’s leading archaeological writers. His books include Fish on Friday, The Little Ice Age, and the best-selling The Great Warming.