The new century saw a hardening of institutionalized racism and legal discrimination against citizens of African descent in the United States. Throughout this post Civil War period, racial stratification was informally and systemically enforced, in order to solidify the pre-existing social order. Although technically able to vote, poll taxes , pervasive acts of terror such as lynching in the United States (often perpetrated by groups such as the reborn Ku Klux Klan , founded in the Reconstruction South), and discriminatory laws such as grandfather clauses kept black Americans (and many poor whites ) disenfranchised particularly in the South. Furthermore, discrimination extended to state legislation that "allocated vastly unequal financial support" for black and white schools. In addition to this, county officials sometimes redistributed resources earmarked for blacks to white schools, further undermining educational opportunities.  In response to de jure racism, protest and lobbyist groups emerged, most notably, the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) in 1909. 
Information is the key to gaining a strategic advantage in a distributive negotiation . You should do your best to guard your information carefully and also try to get information out of your opponent. To a large extent, your bargaining power depends on how clear you are about your goals, alternatives , and walk away values and how much you know about your opponents'. Once you know these values, you will be in a much stronger position to figure out when to concede and when to hold firm in order to best influence the response of the other side.
Avril says he recently went to a mall jewelry store to shop for a watch for his mom and asked to see a watch in a display counter by the shop’s entrance. The clerk, however, kept urging him to come to the back of the store to see the watch. Avril felt he was being profiled because he’s black, and he complained. This wasn’t the most earth-shattering offense for him, but it serves as a cautionary tale for anyone who thinks they’re beyond race in a society that has never dealt with the subject in a comprehensive way, and where trust across racial lines can be elusive.